It doesn't just force us to change our minds. It forces us to change our hearts. This story is so deeply ingrained in our minds that we take it for granted.
History[ edit ] Apothecary vessel for storage of opium as a pharmaceutical, Germany, 18th or 19th century The Mediterranean region contains the earliest archeological evidence of human use; the oldest known seeds date back to more than BCE in the Neolithic age  with purposes such as food, anaestheticsand ritual.
Evidence from ancient Greece indicates that opium was consumed in several ways, including inhalation of vapors, suppositories, medical poulticesand as a combination with hemlock for suicide.
Widespread medical use of unprocessed opium continued through the American Civil War before giving way to morphine and its successors, which could be injected at a precisely controlled dosage.
Numerous finds of P. Opium production continued under the Babylonians and Egyptians. Opium was used with poison hemlock to put people quickly and painlessly to death, but it was also used in medicine.
Spongia somniferasponges soaked in opium, were used during surgery. By BCE, opium was cultivated on Cypruswhere surgical-quality knives were used to score the poppy pods, and opium was cultivated, traded, and smoked.
Poppies also frequently adorned statues of ApolloAsklepiosPlutoDemeterAphroditeKybele and Thesis about smoking addictionsymbolizing nocturnal oblivion.
Some Muslims believe hadithssuch as in Sahih Bukhariprohibits every intoxicating substance, though the use of intoxicants in medicine has been widely permitted by scholars. The text lists medicinal effects of opium, such as analgesia, hypnosis, antitussive effects, gastrointestinal effects, cognitive effects, respiratory depression, neuromuscular disturbances, and sexual dysfunction.
It also refers to opium's potential as a poison. Avicenna describes several methods of delivery and recommendations for doses of the drug. In the s, laudanum was recommended for pain, sleeplessness, and diarrhea by Thomas Sydenham the renowned "father of English medicine" or "English Hippocrates", to whom is attributed the quote, "Among the remedies which it has pleased Almighty God to give to man to relieve his sufferings, none is so universal and so efficacious as opium.
Subsequently, laudanum became the basis of many popular patent medicines of the 19th century. Compared to other chemicals available to 18th century regular physicians, opium was a benign alternative to the arsenics, mercuries, or emetics, and it was remarkably successful in alleviating a wide range of ailments.
Due to the constipation often produced by the consumption of opium, it was one of the most effective treatments for cholera, dysentery, and diarrhea. As a cough suppressant, opium was used to treat bronchitis, tuberculosis, and other respiratory illnesses. Opium was additionally prescribed for rheumatism and insomnia.
Due to its sedative and tranquilizing properties, it was used to quiet the minds of those with psychosis, help with people who were considered insane, and also to help treat patients with insomnia.
Betweenandopiate addicts lived in the United States in the late 19th century and between two-thirds and three-quarters of these addicts were women.
George Beard in proposed his theory of neurastheniaa hereditary nervous system deficiency that could predispose an individual to addiction. Neurasthenia was increasingly tied in medical rhetoric to the "nervous exhaustion" suffered by many a white-collar worker in the increasingly hectic and industrialized U.
Recreational use in Europe, the Middle East and the US 11th to 19th centuries [ edit ] An artist's view of an Ottoman opium seller Soldiers returning home from the Crusades in the eleventh century brought opium with them.
Ottoman and European testimonies confirm that from the 16th to the 19th centuries Anatolian opium was eaten in Constantinople as much as it was exported to Europe. In the book, it is not Ottoman, nor Chinese, addicts about whom he writes, but English opium users: Coleridge began using opium in after developing jaundice and rheumatic feverand became a full addict after a severe attack of the disease inrequiring 80— drops of laudanum daily.
Opium trade became more regular by the 17th century, when it was mixed with tobacco for smoking, and addiction was first recognized. Prior to the arrival of the tobacco pipeopium was only taken orally; when smoked, the drug has a far more potent effect, and its addictive effect is greatly magnified.
China had a positive balance sheet in trading with the British, which led to a decrease of the British silver stocks. Therefore, the British tried to encourage Chinese opium use to enhance their balance, and they delivered it from Indian provinces under British control.
A massive destruction of opium by an emissary of the Chinese Daoguang Emperor in an attempt to stop opium imports led to the First Opium War —in which Britain defeated China. Afteropium use continued to increase with widespread domestic production in China.
Byan estimated 25 percent of the male population were regular consumers of the drug. Recreational use of opium elsewhere in the world remained rare into late in the 19th century, as indicated by ambivalent reports of opium usage.
This led rapidly to town ordinances in the s and the formation of the International Opium Commission in During this period, the portrayal of opium in literature became squalid and violent. Purified morphine and heroin became widely available for injection and patent medicines containing opiates reached a peak in recreational use.
Opium was prohibited in many countries during the early 20th century, leading to the modern pattern of opium production as a precursor for illegal recreational drugs or tightly regulated legal prescription drugs.
Illicit opium production, now dominated by Afghanistanwas decimated inwhen production was banned by the Talibanbut has increased steadily since the fall of the Taliban and western occupation in and over the course of the war in Afghanistan.
Recreational use in China[ edit ] See also: History of opium in China and Opium den An opium den in 18th-century China through the eyes of a Western artist The earliest clear description of the use of opium as a recreational drug in China came from Xu Boling, who wrote in that opium was "mainly used to aid masculinity, strengthen sperm and regain vigor", and that it "enhances the art of alchemists, sex and court ladies".
He also described an expedition sent by the Ming dynasty Chenghua Emperor in to procure opium for a price "equal to that of gold" in HainanFujian, ZhejiangSichuan and Shaanxiwhere it is close to the western lands of Xiyu. A century later, Li Shizhen listed standard medical uses of opium in his renowned Compendium of Materia Medicabut also wrote that "lay people use it for the art of sex," in particular the ability to "arrest seminal emission".CHRC is a holistic alcohol, drug & addiction treatment centre in Ontario.
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